||Number of Pages
||Markku Tilli, Mervi Paulasto-Krockel, Teruaki Motooka, Markku Tilli, Veikko Lindroos, Veikko Lindroos
||Handbook of Silicon Based MEMS Materials and Technologies 2nd Edition
Author: Markku Tilli, Mervi Paulasto-Krockel, Teruaki Motooka, Markku Tilli, Veikko Lindroos, Veikko Lindroos
Description: The Handbook of Silicon Based MEMS Materials and Technologies, Second Edition, is a comprehensive guide to MEMS materials, technologies, and manufacturing that examines the state-of-the-art with a particular emphasis on silicon as the most important starting material used in MEMS. The book explains the fundamentals, properties (mechanical, electrostatic, optical, etc.), materials selection, preparation, manufacturing, processing, system integration, measurement, and materials characterization techniques, sensors, and multi-scale modeling methods of MEMS structures, silicon crystals, and wafers, also covering micromachining technologies in MEMS and encapsulation of MEMS components. Furthermore, it provides vital packaging technologies and process knowledge for silicon direct bonding, anodic bonding, glass frit bonding, and related techniques, shows how to protect devices from the environment, and provides tactics to decrease package size for a dramatic reduction in costs.
Table of Content: List of Contributors Preface to the Second Edition Overview. Impact of Silicon MEMS—40 Years After 1 Introduction 2 Towards Mass Volumes of MEMS Devices 3 Towards Every Pocket 4 Mobile Phones, Smart Phones, and Tablets 5 Ubiquitous Sensing, Computing and Communication 6 Future of MEMS Technologies 7 Conclusions Acknowledgments References Part I: Silicon as MEMS Material Chapter 1. Properties of Silicon 1.1 Properties of Silicon References Chapter 2. Czochralski Growth of Silicon Crystals 2.1 The CZ Crystal-Growing Furnace 2.2 Stages of Growth Process 2.3 Selected Issues of Crystal Growth 2.4 Improved Thermal and Gas Flow Designs 2.5 Heat Transfer 2.6 Melt Convection 2.7 Magnetic Fields 2.8 Hot Recharging and Continuous Feed 2.9 Heavily n-Type Doped Silicon and Constitutional Supercooling 2.10 Growth of Large Diameter Crystals References Further Reading Chapter 3. Properties of Silicon Crystals 3.1 Dopants and Impurities 3.2 Typical Impurity Concentrations 3.3 Concentration of Dopants and Impurities in Axial Direction 3.4 Resistivity 3.5 Radial Variation of Impurities and Resistivity 3.6 Thermal Donors 3.7 Defects in Silicon Crystals 3.8 Control of Vacancies, Interstitials, and the OISF Ring 3.9 Oxygen Precipitation 3.10 Conclusions Acknowledgments References Chapter 4. Silicon Wafers: Preparation and Properties 4.1 Silicon Wafer Manufacturing Process 4.2 Standard Measurements of Polished Wafers 4.3 Sample Specifications of MEMS Wafers 4.4 Standards of Silicon Wafers References Chapter 5. Epi Wafers: Preparation and Properties 5.1 Silicon Epitaxy for MEMS 5.2 Silicon Epitaxy—The Basics 5.3 The Epi-Poly Process 5.4 Etch Stop Layers 5.5 Epi on SOI Substrates 5.6 Selective Epitaxy and Epitaxial Layer Overgrowth 5.7 Considerations for Chemical Mechanical Polishing 5.8 Metrology 5.9 Commercially Available Epitaxy Systems 5.10 Summary References Chapter 6. Thin Films on Silicon Chapter 6.1 Thin Films on Silicon: Silicon Dioxide Chapter 6.2 Thin Films on Silicon: Silicon Nitride Chapter 6.3 Thin Films on Silicon: Poly-SiGe for MEMS-Above-CMOS Applications Chapter 6.4 Thin Films on Silicon: ALD Further Reading Chapter 6.5 Piezoelectric Thin Film Materials for MEMS Chapter 6.6 Metallic Glass Thin Films Chapter 7. Thick-Film SOI Wafers: Preparation and Properties 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Overview of SOI 7.3 Silicon Wafer Parameters for Direct Bonding 7.4 Fabrication of Thick-Film BSOI by Mechanical Grinding and Polishing 7.5 BESOI Process 7.6 Techniques Based on Thin-Film SOI and Silicon Epitaxy 7.7 SOI Wafers with Buried Cavities 7.8 SOI Wafers with Buried ALD Thin Film 7.9 Conclusions References Part II: Modeling in MEMS Chapter 8. Multiscale Modeling Methods 8.1 Macroscopic and Microscopic Equations 8.2 Computational Methods 8.3 First Principles Calculation Method 8.4 Concluding Remarks References Chapter 9. Mechanical Properties of Silicon Microstructures 9.1 Basic Structural Properties of Crystalline Silicon 9.2 Dislocations in Silicon 9.3 Physical Mechanisms of Fracture in Silicon 9.4 Physical Mechanisms of Fatigue of Silicon References Chapter 10. Electrostatic and RF-Properties of MEMS Structures 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Model System for a Dynamic Micromechanical Device 10.3 Electrical Equivalent Circuit 10.4 Electrostatic Force 10.5 Electromechanical Coupling 10.6 Sensing of Motion 10.7 Pull-in Phenomenon 10.8 Parasitic Capacitance 10.9 Effect of Built-in Potential on Capacitively Coupled MEMS-Devices 10.10 Further Effects of Electrostatic Nonlinearities from Applications Point of View 10.11 Application Example: Capacitively Coupled Reference Oscillator 10.12 RF-Properties 10.13 Acknowledgments References Chapter 11. Optical Modeling of MEMS 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Optical Properties of Silicon and Related Materials 11.3 Theoretical Background 11.4 Numerical Modeling Methods for Optical MEMS References Chapter 12. Modeling of Silicon Etching 12.1 Introduction 12.2 Requirements for Modeling Micromachining 12.3 Micromachining as a Front Propagation Problem 12.4 Anisotropic Etching: Geometrical Simulators 12.5 Anisotropic Etching: Atomistic Simulators 12.6 A Survey of Etching Simulators References Chapter 13. Gas Damping in Vibrating MEMS Structures 13.1 Introduction 13.2 Damping Dominated by Gas Viscosity 13.3 First-Order Frequency Dependencies 13.4 Viscoacoustic Models 13.5 Simulation Tools References Part III: Measuring MEMS Chapter 14. Introduction to Measuring MEMS 14.1 On MEMS Measurements 14.2 Variation and Mapping 14.3 MEMS Measurement Challenges References Chapter 15. Silicon Wafer and Thin Film Measurements 15.1 Important Measurements 15.2 Wafer Shape 15.3 Resistivity 15.4 Thickness of Thin Films References Chapter 16. Optical Measurement of Static and Dynamic Displacement in MEMS 16.1 Camera-Based Measurements References Chapter 17. MEMS Residual Stress Characterization: Methodology and Perspective 17.1 Introduction 17.2 MEMS Residual Stress Characterization Techniques 17.3 Perspective and Conclusion References Chapter 18. Strength of Bonded Interfaces 18.1 Introduction 18.2 Solid Mechanics 18.3 Double Cantilever Beam Test Method 18.4 Tensile Test Method 18.5 Blister Test Method 18.6 Chevron Test Structures 18.7 Non-Destructive Bond Strength Testing of Anodic Bonded Wafers 18.8 Summary and Outlook References Chapter 19. Oxygen and Bulk Microdefects in Silicon 19.1 Measuring Oxygen in Silicon 19.2 Measuring Bulk Microdefects References Part IV: Micromachining Technologies in MEMS Chapter 20. MEMS Lithography 20.1 Lithography Considerations Before Wafer Processing 20.2 Wafers in Lithography Process 20.3 Processing After Lithography 20.4 Thick Photoresist Lithography 20.5 Special Lithography Approaches References Chapter 21. Deep Reactive Ion Etching 21.1 Etch Chemistries 21.2 Equipment 21.3 DRIE Processes 21.4 DRIE Advanced Issues and Challenges 21.5 DRIE Applications 21.6 Post-DRIE Etch Treatments 21.7 Choosing Between Wet and Dry Etching References Chapter 22. Wet Etching of Silicon 22.1 Basic Description of Anisotropic Etching: Faceting 22.2 Beyond Faceting: Atomistic Phenomena 22.3 Beyond Atomistics: Electrochemistry 22.4 Typical Surface Morphologies (I. Zubel and Miguel A. Gosálvez) 22.5 Effects from Silicon Wafer Features (Eeva Viinikka) 22.6 Convex Corner Undercutting 22.7 Examples of Wet Etching 22.8 Popular Wet Etchants 22.9 Temperature Dependence of the Etch Rate 22.10 Concentration Dependence of the Etch Rate 22.11 Other Variables Affecting the Etch-Rate Values 22.12 Experimental Determination of Etch Rates 22.13 Converting Between Different Measures of Concentration References Chapter 23. Porous Silicon Based MEMS 23.1 Porous Silicon Background 23.2 PS Sacrificial Layer Technologies 23.3 PS Fabrication Technology 23.4 Microscopic Processes Underlying PS Formation 23.5 Formation of Silicon Microstructures 23.6 Application Examples 23.7 Summary and Conclusions References Chapter 24. Surface Micromachining 24.1 Polycrystalline Silicon-Based Micromachining 24.2 Integration Concepts 24.3 Metallic MEMS 24.4 SOI-Wafer-Based Surface Micromachining References Chapter 25. Vapor Phase Etch Processes for Silicon MEMS 25.1 Vapor Phase Etch Technologies 25.2 Vapor HF Technology for MEMS Release 25.3 XeF2 Technology for MEMS Release 25.4 Applications References Chapter 26. Inkjet Printing, Laser-Based Micromachining and Micro 3D Printing Technologies for MEMS 26.1 Inkjet Printing for MEMS Fabrication 26.2 3D Micromachining Using Laser Ablation 26.3 3D Micromachining of Glass Using Laser-Writing and Etching 26.4 3D Printing Using Micro-Laser Sintering 26.5 3D Printing Based on Single-Photon Polymerization—Microstereolithography 26.6 3D Printing Based on Two-Photon Polymerization—3D Direct Laser Writing 26.7 3D Micromachining by Focused Ion Beam Milling 26.8 3D Micromachining by Focused Ion Beam and E-Beam Assisted Deposition 26.9 3D Micromachining Using Scanning Probe Lithography 26.10 Emerging 3D Printing Technologies for Micro and Nanostructures References Chapter 27. Microfluidics and BioMEMS in Silicon 27.1 Silicon Properties and Machining 27.2 Silicon as a Molding Master 27.3 Needles and Nozzles 27.4 Microreactors 27.5 Silicon-Based Gas Chromatography 27.6 Electrophoresis of Biomolecules in Silicon-Based Sieves 27.7 Microfluidics Integration with CMOS Acknowledgments References Part V: Encapsulation and Integration of MEMS Chapter 28. Introduction to Encapsulation and Integration of MEMS 28.1 Challenges of MEMS Packaging 28.2 Early Work on Bulk-MEMS Devices 28.3 Hermetic Encapsulation in Surface Micromachining 28.4 Purposes of Hermetic Encapsulation 28.5 Wafer Bonding Methods 28.6 Sealing by Film Deposition 28.7 Heterogeneous Integration 28.8 Via Technologies 28.9 MEMS Reliability References Chapter 29. Silicon Direct Bonding 29.1 Hydrophilic High-Temperature Wafer Bonding 29.2 Hydrophobic High-Temperature Bonding of Silicon 29.3 Low-Temperature Direct Bonding of Silicon 29.4 Direct Bonding of CVD Oxides 29.5 Direct Bonding of CVD Silicon References Chapter 30. Anodic Bonding 30.1 Introduction 30.2 The Mechanism of the Anodic Bonding 30.3 Other Material Combinations 30.4 Glasses for Anodic Bonding 30.5 Bonding Parameters 30.6 Bond Quality, Failure Modes, and Characterization 30.7 The Thermal Residual Stress 30.8 The Pressure Inside Vacuum Sealed Cavities 30.9 The Effect of the Anodic Bonding on the Flexible Micromachined Structures 30.10 Electrical Effects 30.11 Bonding with Thin Films 30.12 Conclusions References Chapter 31. Glass Frit Bonding 31.1 Bonding Principle 31.2 Glass Frit Materials 31.3 Screen Printing 31.4 Thermal Conditioning 31.5 Bonding Process 31.6 Physics of Bonding 31.7 Characteristics 31.8 Conductive Glass Frit Bonding 31.9 Cost of Glass Frit Bonding References Further Reading Chapter 32. Metallic Alloy Seal Bonding 32.1 Properties of Metallic Seal Bonds 32.2 Metal Systems and Joint Design 32.3 Soft Soldering 32.4 Eutectic Bonding 32.5 TLP Bonding 32.6 Thermocompression Bonding 32.7 Ultra-Thin Metal Film Bonding 32.8 Reaction Bonding 32.9 Metallic Seal Ring Design and Process Technology References Chapter 33. Bonding of CMOS Processed Wafers 33.1 General Aspects, Requirements, and Limitations of CMOS-Compatible Wafer Bonding 33.2 CMOS-Compatible Low-Temperature Wafer Bonding 33.3 Anodic Bonding of CMOS-Processed Wafers 33.4 CMOS Wafer Glass Frit Bonding 33.5 Adhesive Bonding of CMOS Wafers 33.6 Conclusions References Chapter 34. Wafer-Bonding Equipment 34.1 Aligned Wafer-Bonding Requirements for MEMS Applications 34.2 Wafer-to-Wafer Aligners 34.3 Wafer Bonders 34.4 Aligned Wafer Bonding: Equipment Solutions for MEMS Manufacturing 34.5 The Future of Wafer Bonding Equipment Solutions for MEMS Manufacturing References Chapter 35. Encapsulation by Film Deposition 35.1 Introduction 35.2 Packaging Needs 35.3 Technologies and Methods 35.4 Application: Encapsulated Resonators for Frequency References 35.5 Summary References Chapter 36. Dicing of MEMS Devices 36.1 Introduction 36.2 History of Dicing 36.3 Process Flow and Methods of Dicing 36.4 Stealth Dicing 36.5 Full-Cut Dicing 36.6 Effects of Dicing 36.7 Conclusions References Chapter 37. 3D Integration of MEMS 37.1 Introduction 37.2 The Three Levels of MEMS Packaging 37.3 Cavity Formation 37.4 From Cavities to Surface Mountable Devices 37.5 From Device Packaging to SiP and 3D 37.6 Low Stress Packaging 37.7 Conclusions References Chapter 38. Via Technologies for MEMS 38.1 Through-Silicon Vias (TSV) 38.2 Classification of Through-Silicon Vias (TSV) 38.3 Various Processing Steps in TSV Fabrication 38.4 Overview of Various TSV Technologies 38.5 Reliability of TSVs 38.6 Future Outlook of TSVs for MEMS References Chapter 39. Outgassing and Gettering 39.1 Introduction 39.2 Gas Sources into MEMS Devices 39.3 Residual Gas Analysis (RGA) for MEMS 39.4 Outgassing Analysis 39.5 Getter Films for MEMS Devices 39.6 Lifetime 39.7 Conclusions References Chapter 40. Hermeticity Tests 40.1 Introduction 40.2 Basics of Leakage Measurement 40.3 Leakage Test Methods 40.4 Getter Pumps in MEMS Packages References Chapter 41. MEMS Reliability 41.1 Classification of MEMS Devices 41.2 Failure Mechanisms and Acceleration Factors 41.3 Reliability of Hermetic Encapsulation 41.4 Reliability Testing of MEMS Devices 41.5 Methods of Failure Analysis 41.6 Design for Reliability 41.7 Further Reading References Appendix 1. Common Abbreviations and Acronyms A1.1 Definitions A1.2 List of Some Commonly Used MEMS Related Computational Programs Appendix 2. Nanoindentation Characterization of Silicon and Other MEMS Materials A2.1 Introduction A2.2 Nanoindentation Method A2.3 Indentation in Silicon References Index