||Number of Pages
||Reprocessing and Recycling of Spent Nuclear Fuel - 1st Edition
Author: Robin Taylor
Description: Reprocessing and Recycling of Spent Nuclear Fuel presents an authoritative overview of spent fuel reprocessing, considering future prospects for advanced closed fuel cycles. Part One introduces the recycling and reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel, reviewing past and current technologies, the possible implications of Generation IV nuclear reactors, and associated safely and security issues. Parts Two and Three focus on aqueous-based reprocessing methods and pyrochemical methods, while final chapters consider the cross-cutting aspects of engineering and process chemistry and the potential for implementation of advanced closed fuel cycles in different parts of the world.
Table of Content: List of contributors Woodhead Publishing Series in Energy Preface Part One: Introductory issues and future challenges 1: Introduction to the reprocessing and recycling of spent nuclear fuels Abstract 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Options for spent fuel management (store, dispose, recycle) 1.3 Technology overview 1.4 Historical development of reprocessing 1.5 Survey of modern PUREX-based reprocessing 1.6 Basic introduction to the chemistry 1.7 Prospects for the future 2: Role of recycling in advanced nuclear fuel cycles Abstract 2.1 Sustainability as a driving force for developing advanced fuel cycles 2.2 Potential improvements of nuclear energy within the environmental field 2.3 Potential improvements within the societal field 2.4 Potential improvement with regard to fuel cycle economics 2.5 Roadmap toward a sustainable advanced fuel cycle 2.6 Conclusions 3: Key challenges in advanced reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels Abstract 3.1 Rationale 3.2 Advanced actinide management options 3.3 Advanced reprocessing options 3.4 Lanthanides/actinides separation 3.5 Basic studies 3.6 Scale-up 3.7 Waste treatment 3.8 The multidisciplinary aspect 4: Safety and security issues in the reprocessing and recycling of spent nuclear fuels for advanced fuel cycles Abstract 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Understanding the need for regulating the reprocessing and recycling of spent fuel 4.3 Legal framework governing the use of nuclear energy 4.4 Roles and responsibilities 4.5 Regulation 4.6 Standards and expectations 4.7 Advanced fuel cycle challenges 4.8 Conclusions Part Two: Advances in aqueous separation processes 5: Current headend technologies and future developments in the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels Abstract 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Current practices 5.3 Potential developments to meet future challenges 5.4 Summary and future developments 6: Process engineering and design for spent nuclear fuel reprocessing and recycling plants Abstract 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Principles of nuclear process engineering 6.3 Plant design and engineering 6.4 Advances in solvent-extraction equipment 6.5 Multiscale modeling and simulation 6.6 Current and future trends in design for nuclear fuel reprocessing plants 7: The use of organic extractants in solvent extraction processes in the partitioning of spent nuclear fuels Abstract 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Overview of partitioning processes 7.3 Overview of speciation techniques 7.4 Review of speciation studies 7.5 Conclusions and outlook 8: Radiation chemistry in the reprocessing and recycling of spent nuclear fuels Abstract 8.1 Introduction to radiation chemistry 8.2 Examples of radiation chemical effects on solvent extraction ligands 8.3 Conclusions and commentary 9: Reprocessing of spent fast reactor nuclear fuels Abstract 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Differences between thermal and fast reactor spent fuel reprocessing 9.3 Adaptation of the PUREX process for high plutonium bearing spent fuels 9.4 Additional considerations in the design of fast reactor fuel reprocessing plants 9.5 Status of fast reactor spent fuel reprocessing 9.6 Recent developments in aqueous processes for spent fast reactor fuel reprocessing 9.7 Future development and deployment of the closed fuel cycle in India 9.8 Conclusion 10: Minor actinide separations in the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels: recent advances in Europe Abstract Acknowledgements 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Overview of European partitioning projects within the Framework Programmes FP3 to FP7 10.3 Neptunium 10.4 Trivalent actinide separation: challenges, key separations chemistry, and strategies to be adopted 10.5 Overview and status of DIAMEX processes 10.6 Overview and status of SANEX process development including SANEX variants 10.7 Overview and status of GANEX process development 10.8 Overview and status of EXAm process development 10.9 Future trends 11: Minor actinide separation in the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels: recent advances in the United States Abstract Acknowledgement 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Significance of minor actinide separation 11.3 General approaches to minor actinide separation 11.4 Advanced TALSPEAK 11.5 Actinide-lanthanide separation process concept 11.6 Exploiting high oxidation states of americium 11.7 Conclusions 12: Advanced thermal denitration conversion processes for aqueous-based reprocessing and recycling of spent nuclear fuels Abstract 12.1 Introduction 12.2 History and concepts for improvement 12.3 Process chemistry 12.4 Process equipment and operation 12.5 Conversion of UO3 to UO2 12.6 Product characteristics 12.7 Co-conversion process comparisons 12.8 Future trends 13: The coprecipitation and conversion of mixed actinide oxalates for aqueous-based reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels Abstract 13.1 Introduction 13.2 Plutonium oxalate precipitation and decomposition 13.3 Coprecipitation of mixed oxalates 13.4 Decomposition of coprecipitated oxalates to the oxides 13.5 Developments in the application of the coprecipitation process 13.6 Summary 14: Gelation and other innovative conversion processes for aqueous-based reprocessing and recycling of spent nuclear fuels Abstract Acknowledgements 14.1 Motivation 14.2 History and overview 14.3 Fuel concepts 14.4 Sol-gel techniques 14.5 Water extraction process (ORNL process) 14.6 External gelation 14.7 Internal gelation 14.8 Total gelation 14.9 Weak acid resin process 14.10 Direct coagulation casting 14.11 Conclusions 14.12 Present state and outlook Part Three: Pyrochemical processes 15: International developments in electrorefining technologies for pyrochemical processing of spent nuclear fuels Abstract Acknowledgement 15.1 Introduction 15.2 Molten salt technologies 15.3 Status of electrorefining 15.4 International programs 15.5 Future directions and outlook 16: Oxide electroreduction and other processes for pyrochemical processing of spent nuclear fuels: Developments in Korea Abstract 16.1 Introduction 16.2 Overview of DUPIC process 16.3 Role of pyroprocessing in the fuel cycle; advantages and disadvantages of pyroprocessing 16.4 Fundamentals of molten salts separations 16.5 Introduction to the pyrochemical process 16.6 Headend and oxide-reduction process 16.7 Transuranic separations 16.8 Waste treatment 16.9 Facilities for engineering-scale development of the Korean pyroprocess 16.10 Future trends 17: Pyrochemical processes for recovery of actinides from spent nuclear fuels Abstract 17.1 Pyrochemical reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels 17.2 Electrochemical studies of actinides in molten salts 17.3 Electrorefining process using solid aluminum electrodes 17.4 Summary and future trends 18: Pyrochemical fuel cycle technologies for processing of spent nuclear fuels: Developments in Japan Abstract 18.1 Introduction 18.2 Role of pyrochemical processing in the Japanese fuel cycle scenario; synergy of aqueous reprocessing and pyroreprocessing 18.3 Pyroreprocessing process development 18.4 Pyropartitioning process development 18.5 Waste management 18.6 Basic studies 18.7 Applications to processing damaged core (corium) for Fukushima remediation Part Four: Implementation of advanced closed fuel cycles 19: Development of closed nuclear fuel cycles in the United States Abstract 19.1 Introduction 19.2 Future fuel cycle development requirements 19.3 U.S. Fuel Cycle Technologies program 19.4 Future trends 20: Development of closed nuclear fuel cycles in China Abstract 20.1 Introduction 20.2 Recycling strategy for spent nuclear fuel 20.3 Development of reprocessing technology 20.4 Separation of minor actinides 20.5 Development of pyrochemical reprocessing 20.6 Conclusions 21: Development of closed nuclear fuel cycles in Korea Abstract 21.1 Introduction 21.2 Future nuclear fuel cycle development requirements in Korea 21.3 Overview of the Korean R&D program and recent key highlights 21.4 Future trends 22: Development of closed nuclear fuel cycles in Japan Abstract 22.1 Introduction 22.2 Impact of severe accident at Fukushima 22.3 Future nuclear fuel cycle development requirements in Japan 22.4 Role of R&D, overview of R&D program, and recent key highlights 22.5 Future trends 23: Proliferation resistance, used fuel and multinational approaches to the provision of fuel cycle services Abstract 23.1 Introduction 23.2 Basics of the nuclear fuel cycle and its regulation 23.3 Major nuclear proliferation scenarios involving state-based threats 23.4 Major nuclear security scenarios involving non-state based threats 23.5 The potential of technical means to increase the proliferation resistance of used fuel 23.6 The limitations of technical means to increase the proliferation resistance of used fuel 23.7 Multinational approaches to the provision of fuel cycle services 23.8 International ownership and management of fuel cycle facilities 23.9 Benefits of multinational approaches to the provision of fuel cycle services for nuclear non-proliferation 23.10 Internationalizing the management of used fuel 23.11 Conclusions and the future 24: Developments in reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels for the thorium fuel cycle Abstract 24.1 Introduction 24.2 Virgin thorium production 24.3 Thorium fuel manufacturing 24.4 Thorium fuel cycle back end 24.5 Non-aqueous techniques 24.6 General considerations Index